one of the largest volcanic complexes of its kind

Geology samples

Geology List

The rare rock types and the structure of Pilanesberg make it a unique geological feature.
The following geological types occur in Pilanesberg:
ROCK TYPEDESCRIPTION
Volcanic TuffRocks composed of volcanic ejecta, such as broken pieces of volcanic glass, phenocrysts, rock fragments, etc.
Nepheline SyeniteA plutonic rock resembling syenite but containing nepheline and lacking quartz
LavaSolid rock resulting from cooling of hot molten or semi-fluid rock erupted from a volcano or fissure
KimberliteA rare, blue-tinged, coarse-grained intrusive igneous rock sometimes containing diamonds, found in South Africa and Siberia
FoyaiteThe foyaites found in the Pilanesberg have different names due to their different mineral compositions.
Four varieties of foyaite are identified in Pilansberg and are called White Foyaite (a coarse-grained rock which crystallised slowly from molten magma inside the earth; it is rich in minerals), Red Foyaite (created when ultra-heated water altered the color & composition of rock), Green Foyaite (nepheline in this rock dissolves and results in a pitted surface) and Ledig Foyaite (also called "Green nepheline syenite").
Red SyeniteThere many varieties of syenite. Red syenite makes good polished facing stone.
FloriteSigns of the mining of purple floride can be found in the Reserve. The minerals in these rocks are also a result of ultra-heated water soaked up by the rocks.
Uranium-bearing TuffRocks that are mildly radioactive due to its uranium content. The minerals in these rocks are also a result of water soaking into the rocks at the end of the active life of the volcano.
Geological sites (indicated on maps of the Reserve) contain some cut and polished rock surfaces.